Rose (Rosa L.) is an economically important ornamental genus that has been cultivated for its scent for the perfume industry since antiquity. However, most modern roses have lost their fragrance during the later stages of the breeding process. Here, 59 species of Rosa, including 24 wild Rosa species, 20 Chinese old garden roses, and 15 modern roses, were examined by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Fifty-three volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including terpenoids, benzenoids/phenylpropanoids, and fatty acid derivatives, were detected with qualitative and quantitative analyses. Thirteen common components, including geraniol, citronellol, 2-phenylethanol, 3,5-dimethoxytoluene, 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene, germacrene D, and cis-3-hexenyl acetate, were found. Furthermore, different wild species or cultivars showed different characteristic compounds. 3,5-Dimethoxytoluene and 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene were the main compounds in Rosa odorata and Rosa chinensis, which are the original parents of modern roses. 2-Phenylethanol, citronellol, and geraniol were the main aromatic compounds in Rosa damascene and Rosa centifolia. Methyl salicylate, eugenol, methyl eugenol, and benzyl acetate were lost during domestication and breeding of wild Rosa species to Chinese old garden roses and then to modern cultivars. Geranyl acetate, neryl acetate, and dihydro-β-ionol were gained during this time and showed higher amounts across the rose breeding process. Natural and breeding selection may have caused volatile compound gains and losses. These findings provide a platform for mining scent-related genes and for breeding improved ornamental plants with enhanced flower characteristics to develop new essential oil–producing plants.
Dedang Feng, Hongying Jian, Hao Zhang, Xianqin Qiu, Zhenzhen Wang, Wenwen Du, Limei Xie, Qigang Wang, Ningning Zhou, Huichun Wang, Kaixue Tang, and Huijun Yan
John E. Stenger and Harlene M. Hatterman-Valenti
Traditionally, the structure of higher-order data in genotype-by-environment interaction requires simplification to use bilinear reduction models. Flexible multiway reduction models have been claimed to be more informative, as they allow exploration of individual trends and account for the covariance among data modes. In complex latent traits, such as acclimation response of grapevine (Vitis sp.), these methods may offer increased insight into plant adaptive processes. In a growth chamber study, data from seven phenotypic traits at 11 photoperiodic times in the presence of two temperatures of 30 accessions were analyzed. The four-way interaction among these data modes was isolated and further examined through bilinear singular value decomposition (SVD) and multiway Tucker decomposition models. A similar set of three latent process traits were identified regardless of model used. The Tucker decomposition model led to more concise clustering of wild-type accessions, was more interpretable, as trends could be evaluated separately, and had less indication of overfitting; therefore, the multiway method was preferred over the standard SVD bilinear method in the investigation of high-order interaction in acclimation response. This methodology may offer insight into other complex traits, such as phenolic development, drought tolerance, and horizontal disease resistance to improve breeding efforts as other individual mechanisms used by the organism are separated, quantified, and compared rather than the culmination of events as an end-product.
Andrea Myers, Anthony Gunderman, Renee Threlfall, and Yue Chen
Hand-harvesting parameters and postharvest marketability attributes of fresh-market blackberries (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus Watson) were characterized to develop a prototype for a soft-robotic gripper for robotic harvesting. A custom-made, force-sensing apparatus attached to the thumb and fingers of a person hand-harvesting blackberries was developed to quantify forces used to harvest and to identify appendages for harvesting. Four cultivars of blackberries grown in Arkansas were harvested at optimal ripeness and stored at 2 °C for 21 days to determine the impact on marketability attributes (leakage, decay, and red drupelet reversion). The forces during harvest imparted by the thumb and middle finger were greatest (0.77 N and 0.37 N, respectively), whereas the index and ring fingers used lower forces (0.16 N and 0.06 N, respectively), primarily to stabilize the blackberry. The forces applied to grab, stabilize, and harvest blackberries caused minimal marketability damage (leakage, <10%; decay, <2%; and red drupelet reversion, <8%) after postharvest storage. This project quantified harvest and postharvest parameters, allowing data-driven design of a three-prong soft-robotic gripper for harvest of fresh-market blackberries.
Rebekah C.I. Maynard and John M. Ruter
Salvia is a genetically diverse genus in the Lamiaceae family, with hundreds of species distributed globally. With base chromosome numbers ranging from 6 to 19 and ploidy levels ranging from diploid to octoploid, the genus has been proposed to be subdivided based on molecular data rather than morphology. However, little is known about total DNA content across the genus. The DNA content of 141 Salvia genotypes were analyzed using flow cytometry. Samples of Salvia were stained with propidium iodide and compared with the internal standards Pisum sativum ‘Ctirad’ and Solanum lycopersicum ‘Stupické’ to generate estimations of DNA content. Holoploid 2C genome sizes of the analyzed Salvia ranged from 0.63 pg to 6.12 pg. DNA content showed a wide distribution across chromosome number, ploidy, and clade. The wide distribution of DNA content across the genus further indicates the diversity of Salvia and may be useful for future breeding efforts.
Xiao-ting Li and Jian-ping Bao
In this study, the effects of different Xinjiang pear varieties and ‘Korla Fragrant Pear’ pollination on the stone cells and lignin of fruit were investigated. The contents of stone cells and lignin, and the activities of related enzymes [polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD), and phenylalanine ammonium lyase (PAL)] were analyzed in fruit from different pollination combinations at different growth and developmental stages. Results showed that the stone cell mass density decreased rapidly at 60 to 90 days and 90 to 120 days after flowering. The stone cell and lignin contents, and activities of the three enzymes (PPO, POD, and PAL) decreased rapidly at 60 days after flowering. The stone cell mass density, stone cell and lignin contents, and enzyme activity of fruit from different pollination combinations varied at different timescales. The pear variety ‘Bayue‘ had the lowest stone cell and lignin contents in mature fruit from different pollination combinations. The stone cell content correlated positively with lignin content, stone cell mass density, and enzyme activity.
Limei Yang, Ye Peng, Feng Yang, Donglin Zhang, and Wangxiang Zhang
China is the distribution center of
Le-Jing Lin, Li Lin, and Zhi-Yong Zhu
Li Xu, Fangyun Cheng, and Yuan Zhong
Paeonia ostii ‘Feng Dan’ is an economically important, multipurpose woody plant in terms of its medical, ornamental, and oil values; however, there is a noticeable contradiction between the increasing demands and the lack of excellent germplasm resources because of traditional breeding and propagation approaches. In vitro embryo culture is an attractive option for this issue. This study presents a protocol for in vitro immature embryo culture in P. ostii ‘Feng Dan’, which involves two steps: 1) immature seeds at 30 days after anthesis (DAA) (cellularization stage of endosperm, proembryo stage) or after being cultured in vitro for cotyledon embryo formation (upward micropyle with placenta was the best inoculation method with the highest ratio of seed with cotyledon embryo of 66.67%); and 2) seedling establishment was realized within 7 months via embryo (at 40 DAA or after) germination, shoot induction, rooting, and acclimatization. The multiplication potential was increased with embryo maturity. This protocol provides an available reference for embryo rescue and propagation of tree peony and will be beneficial to shortening the breeding cycle.
Herbaud P.F. Zohoungbogbo, Enoch G. Achigan-Dako, Judith Honfoga, Shih-Wen Lin, Tsung-Han Lin, Yen-Wei Wang, Yuan-Li Chan, Peter Hanson, and Derek W. Barchenger
Habanero (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) is widely grown and consumed in West and Central African countries, and viral diseases represent an important production challenge. Diagnosis of the viral species affecting habanero productivity in Benin is limited, and understanding this will enable more efficient host resistance breeding. During 2019 and 2020, we characterized the incidence and severity of the viral diseases infecting nine promising habanero breeding lines and one commercial hybrid check under open field conditions in Benin. The horticultural performance, including yield and yield component traits of the entries, was determined during the 2 years of the experiment. A randomized complete block design was used with three replications, each with 24 plants. Data were recorded on days to 50% flowering and 50% fruit maturity, yield and on the yield components of fruit weight (g), fruit length (cm), and fruit width (mm), as well as disease incidence and severity. In total, 35 leaf samples were collected for viral diagnosis among habanero breeding lines. We found that Pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV; Potyvirus) was the overwhelmingly predominant virus in our trials, with an 80% incidence; however, we found frequent coinfection of PVMV with Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Cucumovirus), Polerovirus, and, to a lesser extent, Chili veinal mottle virus (ChiVMV; Potyvirus). The mean disease incidence across all entries was 60%. AVPP1932 and PBC 2010 had the lowest disease incidence (35% and 43%, respectively), whereas AVPP1929 had the highest (86%) disease incidence. The F1 hybrid check Afadja had the overall highest yield, with 30 t⋅ha−1, followed by AVPP1932, with 19 t⋅ha−1, both in 2019. There was a negative correlation between disease incidence and total yield (r = −0.44; P < 0.001), supporting previous studies indicating that viral diseases are major production constraints for habanero in West Africa. This study provides insight regarding the need to improve habanero for resistance to aphid-transmitted viruses and develop integrated pest management strategies to limit losses in Benin.