Composted swine (Sus domesticus) lagoon solids may provide a nutrient rich alternative to peatmoss (Sphagnum sp.) in a transplant substrate while dispersing the concentrated nutrients of this waste product in a cost effective, environmentally conscientious manner. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of swine lagoon solids composted with peanut (Arachis hypogaea) hulls and evaluate the utility of this substrate to support growth of vegetable transplants. Swine lagoon solids were composted in an in-vessel compost reactor with peanut hulls 15:85 v/v producing a transplant substrate, swine lagoon compost (SLC). A greenhouse study was conducted with three vegetable species: ‘Moneymaker’ tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), ‘Traviata’ eggplant (Solanum melongena), and ‘Clemson Spineless’ okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) grown in SLC, an organic potting mix (OM), and a peatmoss-based substrate (PEAT). ‘Traviata’ eggplant, ‘Clemson Spineless’ okra, and ‘Moneymaker’ tomato transplants produced in SLC substrate were significantly greater in height and dry weight than those produced in either the OM or PEAT. Based on these findings SLC can provide both the physical and chemical requirements needed for vegetable transplant production without additional amendments or fertilizers.
Abbey C. Noah, Helen T. Kraus, and Paige L. Herring
Dharti Thakulla, Bruce L. Dunn, Carla Goad, and Bizhen Hu
Algae is not desirable in hydroponics and creates problems such as reduced yield and decreased dissolved oxygen, and affects the physiology of plants and, thus, needs to be controlled. An experiment was conducted in Ebb and Flow hydroponic systems to investigate the application timing and rates of two hydrogen peroxide products (Zerotol and PERpose Plus). Treatments included 35 mL weekly, 35 mL biweekly, 70 mL weekly, 70 mL biweekly, and a control with no application of hydrogen peroxide using a 40-gallon reservoir of water. Pepper ‘Early Jalapeno’ and ‘Lunchbox Red’ and tomato ‘Geronimo’ and ‘Little Sicily’ were used. The study was conducted in a split-plot design with two replications over time. Plant growth parameters, including plant height, flower number, net CO2 assimilation, fresh weight, and dry weight were recorded. Algae data, including dry weight, algae cell counts, and chl a were also measured. Results indicated that with increasing rate and timing of either product decreased algae counts, dry weight, and chl a values. However, weekly and biweekly application of 70 mL of both products were not different for algae quantification. In pepper, plant height, shoot fresh and dry weight, and root fresh and dry weight were found to be significantly greater with Zerotol 35 mL biweekly, Zerotol 70 mL weekly, PERpose Plus 35 mL biweekly, and PERpose Plus 70 mL weekly compared with the control. ‘Lunchbox Red’ was significantly greater than ‘Early Jalapeno’ in all growth parameters, except soil plant analysis development (SPAD). ‘Lunchbox Red’ had the greatest flower number, with weekly application of 70 mL PERpose Plus. In tomato, greatest flower number and SPAD were observed in ‘Geronimo’ with a weekly application of 70 mL PERpose Plus and 70 mL Zerotol, respectively. Greater shoot and root fresh and dry weight for both tomato cultivars were recorded with 35 mL biweekly or 70 mL weekly application with either product. The results from both plants as well as algae analysis suggest that weekly application of 70 mL of either Zerotol or PERpose Plus produced the best results in terms of controlling algae and improving the growth of pepper and tomato plants.
Ying Yang, Xian-Ge Hu, Bingsong Zheng, Yue Li, Tongli Wang, Anket Sharma, Huwei Yuan, and Jian-Feng Mao
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs (20–25 nucleotides) that regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally. However, identification and characterization of miRNAs remain limited for conifer species. In this study, we applied transcriptome-wide miRNAs sequencing to a conifer species Platycladus orientalis, which is highly adaptable to a wide range of environmental adversities, including drought, barren soil, and mild salinity. A total of 17,181,542 raw reads were obtained from the Illumina sequencing platform; 31 conserved and 91 novel miRNAs were identified, and their unique characteristics were further analyzed. Ten randomly selected miRNAs were validated by quantificational real-time polymerase chain reaction. Through miRNA target predictions based on psRNATarget, 2331 unique mRNAs were predicted to be targets of P. orientalis miRNAs that involved in 187 metabolic pathways in KEGG database. These targets included not only important transcription factors (e.g., class III homeodomain leucine zipper targeted by por-miR166d) but also indispensable nontranscriptional factor proteins (i.e., por-miR482a-3p regulated nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat protein). Interestingly, six miRNAs (por-miR16, -miR44, -miR60-5p, -miR69–3p, -miR166b-5p, and -miR395c) were found in adaptation-related pathways (e.g., drought), indicating their possible involved in this species’ stress-tolerance characteristics. The present study provided essential information for understanding the regulatory role of miRNAs in P. orientalis and sheds light on their possible use in tree improvement for stress tolerance.
Fan Cao, Cong Guo, Ling Wu, Xin Huang, Qiuxia Xu, and Yujuan Li
Ryan J. Hill, David R. King, Richard Zollinger, and Marcelo L. Moretti
Three 2-year field studies were conducted to evaluate 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) as a suppressant of suckers in European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.). Treatments were basal-directed applications of NAA at 5, 10, and 20 g·L−1 a.i. applied once per season, and two sequential applications of NAA 10 g·L−1 a.i., 28 days apart, compared with 2,4-D (3.8 g·L−1 acid equivalent), and a nontreated control. Treatments were applied early in spring and repeated the following year. Both NAA and 2,4-D delayed sucker growth by 1.2- to 3.0-fold compared with the nontreated control, and response varied with experimental site and year. Sequential treatments of NAA significantly reduced sucker height and fresh weight 120 days after treatment. NAA applied in sequential treatments increased tree trunk cross-sectional area and canopy volume in two of the three experimental sites. Yield of hazelnuts increased when suckers were removed with NAA or 2,4-D compared with nontreated. Results indicate that NAA is an effective option to control suckers in hazelnuts and can help reduce herbicide and labor in sucker control.
Eric T. Stafne, Jenny B. Ryals, and Barbara J. Smith
White drupelet disorder (WDD) in blackberry (Rubus subgenus Rubus) is an abiotic condition resulting from a cultivar and environment interaction. Although high temperatures and light intensities have been implicated, little is known why this disorder manifests. Other factors, such as overall plant stress, may be contributing influences. In this study, three treatments were applied to examine whether the addition of nitrogen (N) can reduce WDD on ‘Sweetie Pie’ erect blackberry over three seasons. An initial 50 lb/acre (56.0 kg⋅ha–1) N was applied to all plots at budbreak. Two additional N application treatments of 100 kg⋅ha–1 were applied at one time (1×) or five, 20-kg⋅ha–1 applications (5×), spaced 1 week apart for 5 weeks starting at bloom. One control treatment of no additional N (0×) was also included. Berries were harvested and weighed as a total, then berries with white drupelets were separated out and weighed. The two values were divided to create a proportion and were then multiplied by 100 to determine the percentage. Nitrogen application decreased the percentage of white drupelet berries from 13.0% (control) to 10.0% (one additional application) and 9.1% (five additional applications). WDD for the 0× treatment correlated negatively to maximum high daytime temperatures during May (r = –0.58, P = 0.03) over the three seasons. Occurrence of white drupelets by treatments 0×, 1×, and 5× correlated significantly with the cumulative number of rainfall events (r = 0.49, 0.47, and 0.46, respectively). Leaf chlorophyll index and photosynthesis measurements were unaffected by treatment. Although it is likely that multiple factors are involved in the development of white drupelets, additional N may reduce the problem.
Lisa Wasko DeVetter, Suzette Galinato, Troy Kortus, and Jonathan Maberry
Floricane red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) produces biennial canes that are traditionally managed by annual selective removal of previously fruited floricanes and training of primocanes that will bear fruit in the next growing season. This process of pruning and training is labor intensive and costly, and growers would benefit from more economical methods of pruning and training. This 6-year project evaluated the economic viability of alternate-year (AY) production in a commercial floricane red raspberry field in northwest Washington and compared it to traditional, every-year (EY) production to assess whether the former could save costs. Despite savings from reduced chemicals, fertilizers, labor, general farm supplies, and other variable costs, the overall benefits of AY production were not enough to offset losses in revenue resulting from reduced yields under the conditions of this experiment in northwest Washington.
Gerardo H. Nunez and Mariana Neves da Silva
Hands-on activities are an essential part of horticulture education. However, facilitating hands-on activities in online horticulture courses is challenging partly due to a lack of literature that describes remote laboratories in the discipline. Here we describe our experience planning and executing a remote strawberry-growing activity in an online horticulture course at the University of Florida, Gainesville. Students received strawberry-growing kits that contained a strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) plant, substrate, and fertilizer. Instructions on growing the strawberry plant were delivered online and students had to provide weekly updates about the status of their plant for 5 weeks. At the end of the semester, students provided feedback about the hands-on activity in the form of an essay. Their answers were analyzed using text mining to gauge their perception of the activity. About 77% of students expressed positive sentiments about the remote activity including excitement, enjoyment, and knowledge gain. Students who expressed negative sentiments about the activity (≈23% of the total) focused on plant casualties and difficulties related to management practices. Overall, student essays and weekly updates reflected a relevant and engaging cognitive exercise in horticulture. Our results suggest that remote laboratories can improve the student experience in online courses and provide a footprint for successful implementation of similar activities in online horticulture courses.