In the actual cultivation process, blind fertilizer application was widespread, resulting in a serious decline in the yield of Pseudostellaria heterophylla. We used the 3414 fertilizer experiment design to study the effects of combined Boron (B), Molybdenum (Mo), and Copper (Cu) on the growth indexes, diurnal changes of photosynthesis, and rapid fluorescence induction dynamics in P. heterophylla. Our results show that the optimal combination of B, Mo, and Cu simultaneously promoted the growth of underground and aboveground parts, and significantly improved the quality of single root tuber and yield per unit area. The best combination was treatment 9 (T9 = B, 1 g/L; Mo, 0.08 g/L; Cu, 0.05 g/L), and resulted in a 35.1% increase in yield per unit area compared with the control group (T1). Although the optimal combined application of microfertilizers did not change the bimodal trend of diurnal variation of photosynthesis, it effectively increased the daily average, peak, and valley values of the photosynthetic rate by alleviating the nonstomatal limitation and the photosynthetic midday depression. Pseudostellaria heterophylla leaves showed greater photochemical activity and less photoinhibition of photosystem II in T9. Major effects were that it helped protect the activity of the oxygen-evolving complex to reduce the oxidative damage of chloroplasts and prevent the dissociation of thylakoid. The microfertilizer application also enhanced the electron receiving ability of the QB and plastoquinone (PQ) electronic pools, thereby increasing the ability of electron transfer from QA to QB. The number of reaction centers per unit area was promoted notably by the fertilization treatment.
Yingli Ma, Tingting Yuan, Tao Wang, Jiaxin Li, Zhongqiu Xu, Siqian Luo, and Yinfeng Xie
Bruce L. Dunn, Stephen Stanphill, and Carla Goad
This study aimed to identify the best method to improve poor branching of poinsettia ‘Orange Spice’. Treatments included pinched and unpinched alone and in combination with four different rates (3.9, 7.8, 11.7, and 23.4 mL⋅L−1) of Atrimmec. Pinching reduced plant height, as did unpinched + 11.7 mL⋅L−1 and unpinched + 11.7 mL⋅L−1 Atrimmec. Neither pinching nor Atrimmec had any effect on plant width, stem caliper, or shoot dry weight. Atrimmec did not increase the number of laterals in combination for pinched or unpinched treatments, but unpinched plants generally produced more laterals. Unpinched with any rate of Atrimmec resulted in tertiary shoots, which improved the visual appearance and quality.
Edina Pászti Mendelné and Ákos Mendel
Jack Olson and Matthew Clark
Variegation is a common trait in plants that characteristically displays white or off-colored plant tissue. In grapevine, leaf variegation is expressed as white and pale green leaf tissue resulting in plants that are stunted in growth and hindered in development. In this study, several experiments were performed to investigate the impact of this mutation has on the anatomy of grape leaves and physiology of the plant. Histological staining of variegated and nonvariegated leaf tissue transections showed alterations to the leaf palisade mesophyll structure that affected leaf tissue width. An assay quantifying leaf pigments was performed to compare chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations in leaves between variegated and wild-type seedlings, which showed that variegated leaf samples had reduced chlorophyll and carotenoid concentration. Through fluorescence imaging, we determined that photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) is reduced in variegated seedlings. By growing variegated and wild-type plants under high, medium, and low light intensities that variegated plants exposed to higher light intensity reduces the phenotypic expression of the variegation trait. Also, we found variegated plants to have significant reductions in growth traits such as plant height, leaf number, branch number, and dry weight compared with wild-type phenotype plants. Overall, our experiments revealed the variegation mutation altered normal leaf development causing significant effects to grapevine physiology.
Ice encasement of perennial cool-season turfgrasses is a common problem in many northern regions of the world, and the incidence of ice encasement may increase with climate change. The objective of this review was to discuss recent advances in knowledge of how ice encasement affects turfgrass systems, current knowledge gaps, and current and potential future management strategies that can be used by turfgrass managers to mitigate ice encasement damage to turfgrass species that are sensitive to this stress. Ice encasement is a complex and severe stress, which if prolonged can include low temperatures, anoxia, toxic gases, toxic metabolic by-products, and other complications associated with the stress. Thus, research is needed to specifically identify responses of different turfgrasses to this stress. Species such as annual bluegrass (Poa annua) are widespread in the turfgrass industry but do not have adequate tolerance of ice encasement and extensive plant necrosis can occur. Repairs or renovations of large areas damaged by ice encasement is costly. Research on ice encasement of turfgrass species is needed to provide efficient recommendations and management strategies to the turfgrass industry.
Erin M.R. Clark, John M. Dole, and Jennifer Kalinowski
Six experiments were conducted using three cultivars to investigate the impact of water electrical conductivity (EC) and the addition of nutrients to vase solutions on postharvest quality of cut rose (Rosa hybrids) stems. Postharvest quality of cut ‘Freedom’ rose stems was evaluated using solutions containing either distilled water with sodium chloride (DW+NaCl) or DW+NaCl with the addition of a commercial floral preservative (holding solution containing carbohydrates and biocide) to generate a range of EC values (Expts. 1 and 2). The third experiment compared the effect of different EC levels from the salts NaCl, sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), and calcium chloride (CaCl2). The fourth experiment investigated EC’s impact on rose stems with the addition of two rose cultivars (Charlotte and Classy). When ‘Freedom’ stems were subjected to DW+NaCl, the longest vase life was achieved with 0.5 dS·m–1. The addition of holding solution not only extended vase life but also counteracted the negative effects of high EC with maximum vase life occurring at 1.0 dS·m–1. Furthermore, stems in the holding solution experienced significantly less bent neck and the flowers opened more fully than those in DW. Stems placed in DW with a holding solution also experienced more petal bluing, pigment loss, necrotic edges, and wilting than those held in DW alone. This effect was likely due to increased vase life. Salt solutions containing Na2SO4 and CaCl2 resulted in extended vase life at 1.0 dS·m–1, but increasing salt levels decreased overall vase life. As EC increased, regardless of salt type, water uptake also increased up to a maximum at 0.5 or 1.0 dS·m–1 and then continually declined. Maximum vase life was observed at 1.5 dS·m–1 for cut ‘Charlotte’ stems, and at 1.0 dS·m–1 for ‘Classy’ with the addition of a holding solution. Physiological effects were different based on cultivar, as observed with Charlotte and Freedom flowers that opened further and had less petal browning than Classy flowers. ‘Freedom’ had the greatest pigment loss, but this effect decreased with increasing EC. Further correlational analysis showed that in water-only solutions, initial and final EC accounted for 44% and 41% of the variation in vase life data, respectively, whereas initial pH accounted for 24% of variation. However, the presence of carbohydrates and biocides from the holding solution was found to have a greater effect on overall vase life compared with water pH or EC. Finally, in Expts. 5 and 6, cut ‘Freedom’ stems were subjected to DW solutions containing 0.1, 1, 10, or 100 mg·L–1 boron, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, or zinc. None of these solutions increased vase life. Conversely, 10 or 100 mg·L–1 boron and 100 mg·L–1 copper solutions reduced vase life. Finally, the addition of NaCl to a maximum of 0.83 dS·m–1 increased the vase life in all solutions. These analyses highlight the importance of water quality and its elemental constituents on the vase life of cut rose stems and that the use of a holding solution can overcome the negative effects of high EC water.
Han-Na Seo, Hyo-In Lim, Yong-Yul Kim, Seung-Beom Chae, and Wonwoo Cho
Identifying the morphological characteristics that distinguish plant varieties is an important issue for plant breeders and researchers. The objective of the present study was to create a partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) model with morphological characteristics for species discrimination and to select the characteristics most important for species discrimination. Data for 27 vegetative characteristics were obtained from Salix caprea and Salix gracilistyla, and their interspecific hybrid (S. caprea × S. gracilistyla), and used for PLS-DA. According to this analysis, seven of the 27 characteristics were identified as those that most influenced species discrimination, and the PLS-DA model with these seven characteristics had a classification accuracy of 86% to 100%. The classification performance of this model was not significantly different from that of the model with all 27 characteristics (full model). Therefore, these results indicated that the three species can be relatively well distinguished by the seven characteristics extracted by PLS-DA. In addition, the selected characteristics can be used to select cross-breeding parents in subsequent breeding programs and to test the distinction, uniformity, and stability (DUS test) of the hybrid variety. From this perspective, PLS-DA is thought to be a useful methodology for classifying new plant varieties and providing information for breeding.
Tanner Donahoo, Lisha Zhang, Matthew Cutulle, and Abolfazl Hajihassani
Increasing regulations and restrictions regarding on-farm chemical use and growing consumer demands for organic food products warrant the development of efficient biological methods for plant disease control and pest management. Grafting and anaerobic soil disinfestation are two sustainable crop production techniques developed to control and regulate weeds, root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita), and soilborne pathogens. Therefore, the present study explores the economic impact of using grafting and anaerobic soil disinfestation, independently and in conjunction, to determine the best combination in terms of yield and net returns for producers. This study drew from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) field trials conducted in 2020 on a 0.5-acre plot at the Clemson Coastal Research and Education Center in Charleston, SC, where five grafting and three anaerobic soil disinfestation treatments were used in combinations for comparisons. Each treatment combination was subjected to sealed (plastic mulch covering a plot punctured 5 weeks after applying anaerobic soil disinfestation treatment) and unsealed (plastic mulch covering a plot punctured immediately after the application of anaerobic soil disinfestation treatment) plot conditions during the anaerobic soil disinfestation phase of plant bed preparation. Treatment combinations with cottonseed meal carbon-sourced anaerobic soil disinfestation were unviable because of lower net returns compared with treatment combinations without anaerobic soil disinfestation in nearly every case. Grafting (‘Roadster’ self-grafted) combined with molasses and chicken manure carbon-sourced anaerobic soil disinfestation under unsealed plot conditions was the most optimal treatment combination in the field trials with the greatest gains (net return per acre) to producers. The positive synergistic effects of combining these methods suggest that grafting and anaerobic soil disinfestation yield better results in conjunction than separately.
Ved Parkash, Sukhbir Singh, Manpreet Singh, Sanjit K. Deb, Glen L. Ritchie, and Russell W. Wallace
Water scarcity is increasing in the world, which is limiting crop production, especially in water-limited areas such as Southern High Plains of the United States. There is a need to adopt the irrigation management practices that can help to conserve water and sustain crop production in such water-limited areas. A 2-year field study was conducted during the summers of 2019 and 2020 to evaluate the effect of deficit irrigation levels and cultivars on root distribution pattern, soil water depletion, and water use efficiency (WUE) of cucumber (Cucumis sativus). The experiment was conducted in a split-plot design with four irrigation levels [100%, 80%, 60%, and 40% crop evapotranspiration (ETc)] as main plot factor and two cultivars (Poinsett 76 and Marketmore 76) as subplot factor with three replications. Results showed that root length density (RLD) was unaffected by the irrigation levels in 2019. In 2020, the RLD was comparable between 100% and 80% ETc, and it was significantly higher in 100% ETc than both 60% Eand 40% ETc. Root surface area density (RSAD) was not significantly different between 100% and 80% ETc, and it was significantly lower in both 60% and 40% ETc than 100% ETc in both years. Soil water depletion was the highest in 40% ETc followed by 60% and 80% ETc, and it was least in 100% ETc in both years. Evapotranspiration (ET) was the highest in 100% ETc followed by 80%, 60%, and 40% ETc. The WUE was not statistically different among the irrigation treatments. However, numerically, WUE was observed in the following order: 80% ETc > 100% ETc > 60% ETc > 40% ETc. The RLD, RSAD, soil water depletion, and ET were not significantly different between ‘Poinsett 76’ and ‘Marketmore 76’. However, fruit yield was significantly higher in ‘Poinsett 76’ than ‘Marketmore 76’, which resulted in higher WUE in Poinsett 76. It can be concluded that 80% ETc and Poinsett 76 cultivar can be adopted for higher crop water productivity and successful cucumber production in SHP.
Maheshwari Asha, Mmbaga Margaret, Bhusal Bandana, and Ondzighi-Assoume Christine
Bacterial endophytes selected for their capability to suppress diverse fungal pathogens in vitro and in greenhouse studies have been shown to promote plant growth. The effect of volatile compounds emitted by selected bacteria on plant growth in Arabidopsis thaliana, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum), and cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) was evaluated on container-grown plants nested above bacterial cultures, with roots exposed to the volatiles without direct contact between bacterial cells and the plant roots. Significant increases in plant growth were observed in plant height, root length, leaf size, fresh weight, and chlorophyll content in all plants tested. Although diverse chemical compounds may be involved in promoting plant growth, including volatile and nonvolatile compounds, observations in this study have implications for the potential role of the selected bacteria in plant production as biofertilizers and biopesticides.