‘Yumeilan’ (CNPVP 20190405) is a new northern highbush blueberry (
Guohui Xu, An Qi, and Hexin Wang
‘Yumeilan’ (CNPVP 20190405) is a new northern highbush blueberry (
Cyrus A. Smith, Dawn VanLeeuwen, Richard J. Heerema, Joshua D. Sherman, Mary J. Comeau, and James L. Walworth
Analysis of composite pecan leaf samples typically used to determine need for nutrient applications does not account for variability among trees in the sampled area. To account for this unmeasured variability, pecan orchard block nutrient standards are greater than actual single tree nutrient requirements. In 2018 and 2019, we measured variability in a pecan orchard block by evaluating nutrient status of all trees in a study area consisting of two cultivars (Wichita and Western) grafted on open-pollinated ‘Ideal’ seedlings. Foliar zinc (Zn) coefficient of variation (cv) ranged from 0.186 to 0.255 within individual cultivars and years but was as high as 0.30 when combining cultivars within a year. The ‘Western’ cultivar had higher foliar Zn concentrations than ‘Wichita’, but Zn concentrations were not consistently associated with other leaf nutrient levels, soil Zn status, or other soil properties. Using observed foliar Zn variability, we determined that it is necessary to sample 35 trees for a composite sample to achieve a relative margin of error of 10% and 95% confidence level in a pecan orchard block with more than 1000 trees. We developed field scale foliar Zn recommendations based on individual tree research that indicates a minimum acceptable leaf Zn concentration of ≈15 mg·kg–1 is needed to maintain optimal photosynthetic function in Zn chelate fertigated pecan trees. Assuming a Zn cv of 0.30 and a composite sample comprised of leaves from 35 trees, the minimum acceptable orchard block Zn level to ensure that less than 5% of trees had suboptimal levels of Zn was 27.6 mg·kg–1. An orchard block Zn level below 23.4 mg·kg–1 indicates that more than 5% of trees in the block had suboptimal foliar Zn concentrations.
Chunxian Chen, Lorraine Rodriguez-Bonilla, and Thomas G. Beckman
A rootstock collection of Prunus species and hybrids is maintained at the U.S. Department of Agriculture stone fruit breeding program at Byron, GA. We genotyped 66 Prunus rootstock accessions and clones using chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites in this study. Chloroplast microsatellites revealed that the accessions belong to four previously defined maternal lineage groups (MLG-1 to -4) and five new ones (MLG-9 to -13). MLG-1 and -2 share the same chloroplast alleles of ‘Chinese Cling’ peach (Prunus persica) derived scions and American scions and rootstocks related to early European introductions, respectively. MLG-3 included ‘Guardian’ rootstock and its descendants. MLG-4 had a single genotype, ‘Okinawa’, that is the maternal parent of ‘Flordaking’. MLG-9 and MLG-11 to -13 included hybrids with different plums (Prunus salicina, Prunus cerasifera, Prunus tomentosa, or Prunus angustifolia) in their maternal parentage. MLG-10 included hybrids from almond (Prunus. dulcis) in the maternal parentage. The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree based on nuclear microsatellite genotyping data showed several clusters. Cluster I included only one scion cultivar Elberta from MLG-1. Clusters II, III, and V contained peach accessions mostly in MLG-2. Clusters IV and VI included accessions mostly in MLG-3. Cluster VII included most accessions of plum-peach hybrid origin and those found within MLG-13. Cluster VIII was found to be mixed with different plum-peach hybrids and hybrids from other Prunus species, most of which were found in MLG-10, -11, and -12. Most accessions in Cluster IX were related to plums in MLG-11 and a few accessions in MLG-9.
Jung-Yi Wu, Ting-Fang Hsieh, Chin-Yi Tsao, and Keng-Chang Chuang
Breeding for new phalaenopsis varieties has been conducted for many decades. With the efforts of breeders, a lot of varieties have been bred and sold in the market, including many colorful varieties with various flower sizes. However, new varieties are constantly being bred and selected every year and are expected to create new colors or new types that are different from those on the market. Breeding for indigo flowers has been a common goal for many breeders in the world. Currently, indigo
Alexandre Furtado Silveira Mello, Giovani Olegário da Silva, Juscimar da Silva, Tarcísio Samborski, José Carlos Ferreira, José Luiz Viana de Carvalho, Marília Regini Nuti, Ana Carolina Silva Siquieroli, Marcos Brandão Braga, Federico Celedonio Diaz Trujilo, and Wolfgang Grüneberg
The number of registered sweetpotato cultivars in Brazil is limited and they are mostly white-fleshed cultivars (
Kaitlin A. Hopkins, Charles R. Hall, Michael A. Arnold, Marco A. Palma, Melinda Knuth, and Brent Pemberton
Conjoint analysis can be used to simultaneously investigate consumer preferences on multiple attributes and levels. Our objective was to gain insight regarding consumer preferences for attributes and levels attributed to Ratibida columnifera, a wildflower of potential commercial interest. A ratings-based conjoint analysis using petal color (bicolor, marble, red, yellow), petal shape (circular, oval, notched, lobed), petal number (less than 10, more than 10), and price ($10.00, $15.00, $20.00) was conducted to elucidate part-worth utility from data from 1000 subjects recruited using Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), a crowdsourcing marketplace. Subjects were then clustered according to their conjoint utility scores. In addition to the conjoint analysis, a principal component analysis was performed based on native plant knowledge of the respondent. Conjoint results revealed that petal color was the most important attribute in decision making, followed by price, petal shape, and petal number. Utility values revealed preference for bicolor petals, followed by red, yellow, and marbled color petals. Preference for price went from least expensive to most expensive. Circular petals were favored over oval, notched, and lobed. Subjects also preferred to have 10 petals or more, vs. less than 10 petals. Cluster analysis yielded three consumer segments, which differed in their utility values. These clusters differed in both demographics and R. columnifera preferences. Overall, consumers preferred R. columnifera with partial (bicolor) or complete red coloration over other options, lower prices, more petals, and entire circular or oval petals.
Abby Pace, Bruce L. Dunn, Charles Fontanier, Carla Goad, and Hardeep Singh
Success of the floral industry lies in strengthening the fresh flower market with value-added products. An experiment was conducted to quantify luminescence of cut-flower white carnations after exposure to two fluorescent products (dye from a yellow highlighter or glow-in-the-dark spray paint). Single stems were placed in bud vases that were filled with 240 mL deionized water and 2 g floral preservative. Highlighter treatments were applied to the vase as either one drop, three drops, or half of the dye reservoir (half stick). Paint treatments were applied at 2-, 4-, or 6-second durations to the flowers. Combination treatments were applied as three drops of highlighter dye plus either 2, 4, or 6 seconds of paint application. Treatments were compared against each other and a nontreated control. There were five repetitions of three stems per treatment arranged in a completely randomized design. Measurements were taken daily on stem fresh weight, flower diameter, quality rating, flower maximum brightness, flower mean brightness, relative stem fresh weight percentage, overall solution absorption rate percentage, and daily solution absorption rate. Stem fresh weight, relative stem fresh weight percentage, flower diameter, and overall solution absorption rate were greatest on day 4. Flower maximum brightness without ultraviolet (UV) light was greatest 2 days after treatment (DAT), but still produced a detectable glow through 8 DAT. Among treatments before UV charge, the 6-second paint duration provided the greatest flower maximum brightness value. The half-stick highlighter treatment had the greatest vase mean brightness. All paint treatments reduced flower quality. For each treated flower, the UV charge increased the brightness values, which ranged from 53% to 206% greater than before the UV charge. White carnations can luminesce with spray applications of glow-in-the-dark spray paint or through the stem absorption method using yellow highlighter dye, with the latter being less detrimental to vase life but requiring a UV light source to glow.
Hamidou F. Sakhanokho, Nurul Islam-Faridi, and Barbara J. Smith
Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. is a widespread shrub or tree of the Sahel region, where it grows wild and is used for various purposes, including nutrition, medicine, and firewood. Current domestication programs focus on using the local species as rootstock for the improved imported Asian cultivars to provide tolerance to pests and diseases. The plant plays an increasing economic role in the livelihoods of local Sahelian populations, but despite this there is little genetic information about it. The purpose of our study was to determine the genome size estimate and chromosome numbers of Z. mauritiana germplasm collected from eastern Senegal, West Africa. Genome size estimates were determined using flow cytometry, and chromosome count was achieved using chromosome spreads of actively growing root tips. The mean, median, minimum, and maximum genome size estimates (1Cx-DNA) of Z. mauritiana were 418.74 Mb, 417.45 Mb, 410.72 Mb, and 432.12 Mb, respectively. Plants of the germplasm investigated were found to be octoploid with a chromosome number of 2n = 8x = 96. The genetic information gathered in this study can be useful for phylogenetic studies, sequencing projects, and domestication programs that focus on controlled pollination for the development of improved Z. Mauritania cultivars in the Sahel region.
Jiaqi Lin, Dongling Li, Zhenghui Pan, Dou Feng, and Weiyan Xuan
Floating seedling technology was used to propagate banana seedlings. The effects of different substrates, such as wood bran, vermiculite, and Murashige and Skoog (MS) nutrient solution, at different concentrations on the survival rate of banana floating seedlings and the growth of seedling stem, leaf, and root systems were compared. The results showed that banana seedlings treated with MS nutrient solution at one-half or one-third concentration or hydroponically with controlled slow-release fertilizer (0.5–0.6 g/plant) directly added to the wood bran substrate grew the fastest and had the largest number of roots. At 50 days after transplanting, these banana seedlings reached the standard of first-grade packaged seedlings, with the number of expanded leaves reaching 6.6 to 7.6, the width of leaves reaching 6.5 cm to 7.3 cm, and the root system relatively developed. The comprehensive characteristics of the seedlings were all better than those of other treatments. The results of this study have certain reference significance for accelerating seedling growth in greenhouses and large-scale production of disease-free banana seedlings. The banana floating seedling system we developed did not need watering every day and may be simpler than other seedling raising methods.
Sukhdeep Singh, Taylor Livingston, Lisa Tang, and Tripti Vashisth
Fruit production of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) in Florida has been declining with the presence of Huanglongbing [HLB; Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas)] disease. Through disruption of the balance of endogenous hormone levels, the disease has negative impacts on fruit development, mature fruit retention, and overall tree health. Thus, the goal of this research was to determine whether plant growth regulator gibberellic acid (GA3) can be used to improve the production issues caused by HLB. For ‘Valencia’ sweet orange, although foliar applied GA3 from September to January (33 mg·L−1 for five applications) resulted in 50% decrease in bloom the following spring (results presented in ), this treatment did not cause reduction in yield of current and subsequent crops. Moreover, a 30% average increase in yield in GA3-treated trees was observed over a period of 4 years. The size of mature fruit was also increased (by 4% to 5%) with reduced fruit drop rate near harvest in GA3-treated trees compared with nontreated control trees. Furthermore, the canopy density, an indicator of HLB severity, was maintained in trees applied with GA3 (from 90.8% light interception to 90.4%). In contrast, there was a substantial decrease in canopy density for control trees (from 91.6% to 84.0%). Gene expression analysis of abscission zone and leaves indicated that GA3-treated trees had enhanced oxidative stress mitigation mechanism and plant defense response. Given that there is no cure for HLB, these results presented a possible remedy of using GA3 in sustaining tree health for field-grown sweet orange affected by HLB.