A 1975 fig crop reference chapter written by W.B. Storey contains pedigree information involving 30 cultivars from the University of California breeding program and early California. The data were compared with the records from the US Department of Agriculture and statements from two other sources. Graphical representations were used to determine differences among the authors. All data are supplied in this article and supplemental materials. An estimate of correct parentage is presented in the final graph.
Almond growers are seeking ways to reduce costs but maintain yield. Intensive planting systems with greater planting densities using trees on growth-controlling rootstocks, combined with mechanical pruning and shake-and-catch harvesting are becoming popular. In this study we examined the responses of six almond cultivars with distinctive architecture grafted onto five rootstocks with varying degrees of vigor control. Trees were planted in 2018 in a nursery row and left to grow without pruning until Winter 2021. Pruning involved a rudimentary hedging treatment akin to mechanical pruning. Branching and tree structure were recorded in 2020, before pruning, and again at the end of 2021, after one season’s growth following pruning. A rating system was developed to record qualitative data on central leader dominance and the number, length, basal diameter, and, in some cases, branching angle of axillary shoots and including scaffold branches. Relatively few changes were recorded in the basic growth habit of these trees in response to pruning. Before pruning, the most common rootstock effect was on axillary shoot production. After pruning, the most common rootstock effects were on scaffold branching and the length of subterminal axillary shoots. Further studies are required to determine how these differences produced by the interaction between pruning and rootstock may affect the productivity of fruit-bearing trees. Although in this study with young trees we were not able to record crop yield, the results highlight that it is mainly the scion–rootstock combination, with or without pruning, that determines the potential productivity of fruiting canopies. Scion–rootstock combinations that produce narrow upright canopies naturally with strong central leader dominance and highly branched canopies are preferred for superintensive growing systems with or without use of mechanical hedging.
Different sources of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) are used to produce hybrid onion seed. The most commonly used source of CMS in onion is S cytoplasm (S-CMS), and male fertility is restored by a dominant allele at the nuclear male-fertility restoration locus (Ms). Male-sterile plants possess S cytoplasm and have the homozygous recessive genotype at Ms; seed propagation of male-sterile plants is possible by crossing with a male-fertile maintainer plant or inbred possessing normal (N) male-fertile cytoplasm and the homozygous recessive at the Ms locus (N msms). Some commercially important onion populations possess S-CMS and high frequencies of the dominant Ms allele, eliminating the possibility to develop maintainer lines. An alloplasmic source of CMS (Gal-CMS) was developed by backcrossing the cytoplasm of Allium galanthum into the nuclear background of onion. The advantage of Gal-CMS is that the dominant allele at Ms does not restore male fertility, making this source of CMS useful for the development of male-sterile lines from populations possessing S cytoplasm and dominant allele(s) at Ms. In this research, a single nucleotide polymorphism unique to the cytoplasms of A. galanthum and Gal-CMS was identified, useful to distinguish Gal-CMS from other onion cytoplasms.
Knowledge of the genes underlying a given trait is highly useful for developing molecular markers for breeding and is the foundation for future genomic crop improvements. The cultivated strawberry, F. ×ananassa, is a valuable horticultural crop. Genome sequencing revealed that of the four diploid strawberry subgenomes contributing to the F. ×ananassa octoploid genome, the woodland strawberry, F. vesca, subgenome is dominant. Thus, F. vesca is an important system for determining gene function and should be used as a source of genetic diversity for F. ×ananassa breeding. Ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis of H4 F7-3, an inbred line of F. vesca, resulted in one M2 line that did not produce any strawberries over a 3-year period in the greenhouse. This line was named fruitless 1. The fruitless 1 phenotype results from a single gene recessive mutation. Microscopic characterization revealed that fruitless 1 failed to produce fruit because anthers fail to develop properly before meiosis, resulting in no pollen production. This report of fruitless 1 facilitates further studies of the line.